Renowned ethnographers such as Malinowski, Mead, and Radcliffe-Brown belonged to the field of anthropology (Brewer, 2000). We note that this factor is greatly undermined in the current health literature. This may be viewed as a positive aspect of modern ethnography, as ethnography is becoming more manageable as a methodology, which may reflect modern research standards and demands. Technologically advanced methods of data collection such as cameras are costly and easily noticed (Nastasi, 1999). The way of writing an effective ethnographic paper depends on the points discussed below. For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. A view that recognizes that culture is unique to specific social groups while undermining divisions within groups. Introduction Ethnography is a Greek term derived from ethnos meaning “people” and graphein meaning “writing.” This research method was developed during the Enlightenment in protest to positivism or the view that “the world (including human society) can be described in terms of generalizable laws” (Boellstorff et al., 2012, p.14). Hit that sends message button today. Ethnographic Research Paper Examples Pdf. For example ,questions can be asked: Does the methodology and subsequent methods fit with the research question? Research immerse themselves in the culture, the behaviors, and the events of their participants to gather intensive data. An ethnography is qualitative research method that is meant to describe a culture or an activity of a certain community. Types of Ethnographic Research Realistic Ethnographic Research. Exemplary in Ethnographies in Health Research. Reflexivity is a qualitative method of research that takes an ethnography one step further, displaying the personal thoughts and reflections of the anthropologist on his informants. Article: Reading an article on the history and function of tattoos from Smithsonian Magazine. Furthermore, the use of videotaping helps ethnographers in capturing the broader array of behavioral data, which is difficult to collect via traditional methods. That is why Ethnography is also known as "culture writing". A proper ethnographic research topic would form a strong foundation for this part. The following is a detailed description of these research types. View or download all the content the society has access to. As noted by Boyle (1994), the “doing ethnography” has gone through an extensive evolution and has changed significantly. For this type of research, it's best to be the proverbial fly on the wall. and require IRB approval. In this era, ethnographic research focused extensively on understanding “other,” “primitive,” “lower culture,” and “savage” societies (Taylor, 2002; Wolcott, 1999), or an unfamiliar culture. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. The ethnographic photo-essays that students from Anthropology 380: Visual & Ethnographic Methods have submitted here are examples of how IWU anthropology students learn to conduct ethnographic research with visual media--in this case, still photography. We are going to explore a list of ethnography topics in clusters of ten each to prompt you for more. Several health science ethnographic studies (Bright et al., 2012; Carroll et al., 2008; Kidd & Finlayson, 2010; Mahon, 2014; McCabe & Holmes, 2013; Siddique, 2012) have acknowledged the critical role of reflexivity. This flexibility might be viewed as a positive feature, because it allows the researcher to use the best method of data collection for their studies. Many ethnographers travelled long distances where they spent a great deal of time learning about participants’ language, understanding unfamiliar ways of life, and most important to be accepted by participants’ communities. The paper should follow the outline below: It is where you introduce your thesis statement, which is the main idea of the whole project. We want to identify how ethnography has evolved and what might be some of the most important transitions that ethnographers have made in the health sciences. Ethnographic research, also called fieldwork, involves observation of and interaction with the persons or groups being studied in the group's own environment, often for long periods of time. For example, in focused ethnography, the use of participant observation is of short duration and time intensive and in autoethnography participant observation might be entirely over looked. Each of these approaches involves different techniques. Case study. Ethnographic research conducted by anthropologists for many years has included descriptions about health beliefs and practices of different cultural groups (Hill, 1985). It is necessary to read extensively on your area of research to … So, sometimes the best way to understand a new culture is to experience it by living it. The ethnographic literature was ransacked for cases meeting the following specifications, and a needed example was omitted only if the search failed to uncover any society which both met the specifications and was sufficiently well described to merit inclusion. Ethnography Essay Examples Example 1. Below are the most commonly used qualitative research types for writing a research paper. It does not stand in opposition to conventional ethnography. Using prolonged engagement and triangulation as approaches for data collection will also serve the purpose of establishing credibility. Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. Most anthropology protocols involve ethnographic research (including observation, participant observation, interviews, group discussions, audio-visual records, etc.) 1. “Medical anthropology concerns its self with a wide variety of health-related issues, including the etiology of disease, the preventive measures that human members of sociocultural systems have constructed or devised to prevent the onset of disease, and the curative measures that they have created in their efforts to eradicate diseases or at least mitigate its consequences” (Baer, Singe, & Susser, 1997, p. vii). We have developed two tables for this article. Sharing links are not available for this article. Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? Finding A-grade examples of ethnographic research topics may not be a walk in the park for college students. It is vital to note that there was distinction in how culture was viewed in different disciplines. As pointed out by Brink in 1990, these questions are related to issues of reliability and validity. Today, ethnography is a common approach in various social science fields, not just anthropology. The scope of the types of subjects found in ethnographic practice is virtually limitless. It is vital information to correctly analyze the data collected through interviews and observations. This means evaluating the fit between the various components of the study design. In critical ethnography, the researcher plays a role of advocate for the population under study. What part of the data comes from their field notes? However, several researchers question the transferability/generalizability of ethnographic findings. Your email address will not be published. According to Cruz and Higginbottom (2013), focused ethnography is best suited to examine experiences within a culture or a subculture in particular settings, such as emergency departments, outpatient clinics, or trauma units, as opposed to investigating an entire hospital culture or a community. In recent years, the focus of many ethnographic researchers and anthropologists has shifted from exploring traditional cultural medical practices to technologically advanced medicine in clinical setting (Geest & Finkler, 2004). Contemporary Forms of Ethnography. As Pink (2007) proposed, it is now commonly recognized that videos are not only used to record data but “as a medium through which ethnographic knowledge is created” (p.96). Related: Qualitative Research - Methods, Types, and Examples. He promoted the need for developing interdisciplinary research teams which collaborate to improve health care (Kleinman, 1981). Thick description was integrated in the majority of the health research studies we reviewed to demonstrate rigor (Mahon, 2014; McCabe & Holmes, 2013; Liu et al., 2012; Siddique, 2012). In comparison, conventional ethnographies emphasize long-term fieldwork, prolonged participant observation, and the involvement of larger unknown communities (Atkinson & Hammersley, 1998; Hammersley & Atkinson, 1995; Picken, 2013). Lean Library can solve it. Cultural Behavior/Topic: Tattoos Research Question: Do people from different cultures get tattoos for the same reasons? They learned about ethnicity, religious activities, and languages of entirely different communities. The scope of the research was generally vast and required a long-term commitment to gain an insider’s perspective (Richards & Morse, 2007). For example, in institutional ethnography, there is textual analysis, and in visual ethnography, there are photovoice or images of everyday life that are the main sources of data collection. The origin of ethnography in health research dates back to the development of a branch of anthropology known as medical anthropology. Contemporary ethnographic research looks at what may be considered ordinary or mundane to those living within a community, for example shopping malls, corporations, towns, cities, cyberspace, garbage, libraries, parks, etc. Hence, spending time in the field, interacting with members of the group is the best way to gain insight to the phenomenon under consideration (Warr, 2004). The main goal of critical ethnography is to understand a culture with the intent to bring about change in the society. A study conducted by Buckingham, Lack, Mount, MacLean, and Collins (1976) focused on the care provided to dying patients in the general surgical ward/palliative care unit. Writing Sample 1 Ethnographic Research Paper Pdf This Is An. Ethnographic Data Generation in a Mental Health Setting: The Role of P... Quadangulation: A New Methodology Combining Ethnographic Research and ... Becker, H. S., Geer, B., Hughes, E. C., Strauss, A. L. (, Bright, F. A. S., Boland, P., Rutherford, S. J., Kayes, N. M., McPherson, K. M. (, Buckingham, R. W., Lack, S. A., Mount, B. M., MacLean, L. D., Collins, J. T. (, Carroll, K., Iedema, R., Kerridge, R. R. (, Ellis, C., Adams, T. E., Bochner, A. P. (, Gagnon, A. J., Carnevale, F., Mehta, P., Rousseau, H., Stewart, D. E. (, Gustafsson, M., Kristensson, J., Holst, G., Willman, A., Bohman, D. (, Heath, C., Luff, P., Sanchex Svensson, M. (, Higginbottom, G. A., Pillay, J. J., Boadu, N. Y. Focused ethnography is a response to individual’s lives that are “socially and culturally highly fragmented and differentiated” (Knoblauch, 2005, p.1); thus, it is the study of shared experiences of a more confined, predetermined phenomenon. Whereas, in conventional ethnography, the main goal is to merely acquire understanding of a particular culture (Thomas, 1993). Social Media Analytics. We have selected these studies to show examples of each form of ethnography used in health research. Refining Your List of Questions to Ask in an Ethnographic Interview. Further, Margaret Mead’s work entitled as the “Coming of Age in Samoa” was evidence which indicated that regardless of androcentric nature of the ethnographic work, women continued to contribute to greater extent to the field of ethnography (1928). In addition, medical anthropologist recommended that thorough knowledge acquired by doctors about patients’ perception of an illness will enable them to deliver better quality care (Kleinman, 1981). Since the evolution of ethnography, the meaning of culture has changed. Looking at this work provides insights on how contemporary forms of ethnographies differ. Trend Analysis Samples. The primary methods used by ethnographers were interviews, participant observation, and fieldwork to gain an in-depth understanding of their participant’s everyday environment and the social meanings attached with being part of a particular culture (Brewer, 2000). Fieldwork is an important element of ethnographic research. Due to their close connections, ethical questions are often encountered. Examples of ethnographic research subjects are found across an array of cultural, geographic, ethnic, political and identitarian boundaries from the homeless population in Chicago to Italian investment bankers or Sri Lanka female migrant workers. You can use the collected notes for interpretations. The ethnographic photo-essays that students from Anthropology 380: Visual & Ethnographic Methods have submitted here are examples of how IWU anthropology students learn to conduct ethnographic research with visual media--in this case, still photography. Caring and empathizing is for us [autoethnographers] what abstracting and controlling is for them [analytical ethnographers]. Doubly Engaged Ethnography: Opportunities and Challenges When Working With Vulnerable Communities. The items strive to meet your high school and college ethnography topics requirements. Critical ethnography “is a way of applying a subversive worldview to the conventional logic of cultural inquiry. New approaches to research and treatments were needed to cure and prevent such diseases. Therefore it is not the people themselves who are the object of inquiry; rather the institution and their experiences are the target of the investigation (Smith, 2005). Do not limit yourself to the topics above; create more unique ones on your own. A participant declined to revisit and talk about the initial stage of their child’s injury because they have “put it behind them.”. In the past three decades, ethnographic studies published in health research have increased, and ethnographic work has become popular among health researchers (O’Byrne, 2012). Institutional ethnography has been used in health research to explore a wide range of health-related issues ranging from understanding nurses’ stress (McGibbon, Peter, & Gallop, 2010) to understanding the production of health care disparities (Sinding, 2010). The analysis of photographic content depends on a number of factors including context, time, who is analyzing them, and when they are being analyzed (Pink, 2013). This trend was not apparent in classic ethnographies, where the focus was on exploring a whole culture rather than a specific issue. “In fact, without contextualization, interpretation of the specialized finding can be dangerously narrow and unethical (the high tolerance of certain cultural group to pain stimuli comes to mind as an example)” (Thorne, 1991, p.182). (Richards & Morse, 2007). With such diversification, it is not surprising that there is greater variability in how different methods of data collection are tailored to the basic purpose of theses ethnographic forms. Contemporary Nurse: The problem of time in ethnographic health care research, SAGE Publications Inc unless otherwise noted. As a method, ethnographic observation involves embedding oneself deeply and over the long-term in a field site of study in order to systemically document the everyday lives, behaviors, and interactions of a community of people. Related Journals of Ethnography. While none of these would be considered a perfect paper, most of them contain elements that will provide you with positive examples. Reviewing the range of contemporary forms ethnography indicates the shift that has occurred in ethnography over time. How to write an effective ethnographic paper depends on the points discussed above. Tremendous efforts have been made by classic ethnographers to produce rigorous ethnographic work and this trend continuous in ethnographies produced in health science research. We believe that ethnographic work conducted in health research must focus more on contextual components of the data. There is no set criterion to determine whether a photograph is ethnographically rich or poor. The following is a detailed description of these research types. Ethnographic work published in health research, show researchers have extensively attended to the issue of rigor in regard to their data. For the purposes of market research, ethnography is an indirect methodology where consumers natural behaviour in their everyday environment is observed. We show that classic ethnographic work has been increasingly taken up in different ways in health research and ethnography as methodology has changed over time. Ethnography and phenomenology are two detailed, qualitative research studies that are used in the field of social sciences.Ethnography is the systematic study of people and cultures whereas phenomenology is the study of subjective, lived experiences and perspectives of participants. The type of questions examined by critical ethnographers is engraved with political purpose, understanding the depth of social problems and the goal to eradicate power imbalances in a particular culture (Madison, 2012). Origins and ancestors: A brief history of ethnography, Mental illness in the nursing workplace: A collective autoethnography, Videography: Analysing video data as a ‘focused’ ethnographic and hermeneutical exercise, Harvard University Peabody Museum of American Archeology and Ethnology, Medication communication between nurses and patients during nursing handovers on medical wards: A critical ethnographic study, Reordering social life: Reflexivity and video methodology, The health of teenagers: A focused ethnographic study, A critical ethnographic look at paediatric intensive care nurses and the determinants of nurses’ job satisfaction, Nursing, sexual health and youth with disabilities: A critical ethnography, Navigating a way forward: Using focused ethnography and community readiness to study disability issues in Ladakh, India, An institutional ethnography of nurses’ stress, Development of deaf identity: An ethnographic study. View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. As a result of this focus, qualitative sampling is based on acquiring enough and suitable information. Medical anthropologists have also suggested that researchers should incorporate both universal and culturally specific elements of clinical activities in their research (Kleinman, 1981). Researchers also avoid elaborating on the important contextual question such as what was the context in which the participant made a statement about the phenomenon under study? Human behavior is of course shaped by human biology and is therefore shared by many if not all societies, hence culture tends to be applied to things that vary between societies and which therefore cannot be entirely determined biologically, for example, what people consider proper food, what times of the day they eat, or with whom they eat. Ethnography as an approach to research has been in a constant state of development since the 19th century and much of this article points to the many changes over time and that ethnography as a methodology is inconstant flux. The male centric nature of traditional ethnographic research led most critics to question the universality of their ethnographic work (Macdonald, 2002). Epistemology is the theory of understanding. In the traditional version, a researcher would use cameras, notepads, etc. Ethnographers attempt to collect information on people and their culture by gathering data in the form of description. In this part, you explain how you did your research. According to Emzir (2012: 18) ethnography which is populist science, formulated with a more modern language according to the times, ethnography may also be interpreted as a cultural … Hence, it is not surprising that there is still an ongoing debate about the concept of culture and how problematic it is among contemporary ethnographers. The interest in taking up this challenge emerged from the desire to understand the progression of ethnography as a methodology in health research. Review Samples. For example, Colin M. Turnbull lived with the Mbuti people for three years in order to write the classic ethnography The Forest People. Ethnographers in North America, specifically the work of researchers at the Chicago School of Ethnography (Brewer, 2000; Picken, 2013), contributed and advanced the field of ethnography. How cultural productions interpret the history, Adjustments made by women to fit in societies, Cultural differences between different ethnic groups. 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