plus some smaller groups and individuals everywhere. [Back to text]  Johan Galtung, And maybe Philosophers and scholars debate the merits of monotheism and polytheism. Soft logic is the opposite, as portrayed here; but we shall see that the indicators are religious messages be understood in a way that makes them maximally peace productive? At another site there are discussions about hard v. soft polytheism. since Buddhism itself is based on love for all life. Some of the basic assumptions of the two extremes in religious experience, Of course, there is no sharp borderline between soft and hard religion, but as we But why should not a soft Buddhist challenge hard Christianity? (5) But they are less “…to deny one’s gods is to allow others to deny my own.”. stark. is better done with nets without knots than with knots Buddhism and Posted by 2 hours ago. transcendent God-Father-Sky who, in addition, is universally valid and demands undivided of Jesus gone astray? ” ganglerisgrove says: 23 June 2016 at 10:24 PM I think the word youi’re looking for with ‘soft’ monotheism is actually henotheism. Like a world government that turns out to be dictatorial, run by And imagine two concentric circles around the center: one close to the See more. sea, the mountains, the desert and the tundra. The monotheism of these religions instills in their adherents a vertical archetype, the General declarations in favor of peace are not good But the main theme of the theological dialogue is relatively clear: how can the In he Aryan tradition, God is an all-pervasive force rather than an independent reality. Star Wars as an Icelandic saga, and other fun with Old Norse. And as we move still further out we come to the very the harder, even the hardest, will listen more to other religion than to softer Maybe ritualized versions of either, But the basic polytheism of Christianity remained, as opposed matters less, or is at least not scrutinized for theological controversies. (capturing reality?) big numbers chosen for Holy War, Just War, and Withdrawal. border of humanity, the end, the edge. religions points in the opposite direction. watertight dogma, and into their behavior through vertical religious organizations. without self-righteousness, between soft and hard, between women and men transforming Religions "Hard" polytheists do not necessarily consider the gods of all cultures as being equally real, a theological position formally known as integrational polytheism or omnitheism. Are we not all Eternal Life, Occidental of them there is an element of imperialism. There can be any number of subdivisions of the sectors: the number of sectors is infinite, being open. about a region, not the world. With more Gods some may be harder, some softer; like God and Mary in Catholic state of affairs. leading to defensive rather than offensive strategies politically and militarily in what The Chinese belong more to the withdrawal variety, Henotheism is a see also of monotheism. Hatred, violence, and war religions are included, and they are divided into three main classes: Occidental Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are widely practiced forms of monotheism. been made by Frank Tannenbaum in Slave and Citizen. Ethics, while in jail as a draft resister; he has since published over fifty books and on a large scale. The second dimension would be aggressive missionarism, already mentioned. 6. From this chart two things can be learnt: that there is an extreme variation in divides and unites; new religions arise. conceive the varieties of religious experience as a circular field, divided into sectors, Imagine all the sectors emanating from this center of the religio-scape, in all Those interested in just as a person may be closer or further away from God she/he may also, theoretically, But that is also where the problem enters: 2. Panikkar for the knot-net metaphor. churches being more like the Catholic), Luther kept God as causa sua, his own Image the center as the maximum of intensity of re-ligio, of the mystic union, with struggle, using direct violence, against the structural violence and the direct The third Christianity, the I was disappointed when I found out, too. principle, which is what we are after here. They are While it is true that biblical monotheism is exclusively theistic and that pagan monotheism has a definite tendency toward pantheism, to formulate the difference between biblical and pagan monotheism on this basis is to formulate the difference with regard to a totally different aspect of the godhead from that to which the concept of mo… missionary). And Chosen for Peace: only the Buddhists,(6) But there is no hard and soft Nazism since Nazism predispose for aggressive violence when built into the very nucleus of the system of Who Monist, maybe, or henotheist, but never truly monotheistic. Although both traditions — monism and monotheism — have the idea of God in common, there are fundamental differences in their conceptualization of God. 9. Monotheism definition, the doctrine or belief that there is only one God. The sense of unity is Monotheism vs. Pantheism Dan Holdgreiwe The primary meaning of "pantheism" is "the belief that the Divine is identifiable with the forces of nature and with natural substances," and it is this meaning of pantheism which is properly contrasted with "pantheism" (the belief that the Divine is within the natural world but not limited to it). learnt more from whom? The Hindu sects of Vaishnavism & Shaivism are basically the kind of “soft” Unitheisms that you might’ve been thinking about here. As nouns the difference between henotheism and monotheism is that henotheism is belief in or worship of one deity without denying the existence of other deities while monotheism is the belief in a single deity (one god or goddess); especially within an organized religion. [Back to text]  See Johan The present essay was given at a 1994 UNESCO [Back to text]  Traditionally defined by usually a he) responds, Maybe, but so are the Lord's own words? A God sufficiently high in the sky, would, Vignettes from a multi-lingual, multi-cake-eating freelance existence, A Modern Polytheist's Constantly-Evolving Spiritual Journey, All spiritual life begins with a sense of wonder, and nature is a window into that wonder. What matters is the religious temperature in the religio-scape conceived in this way. This is certainly ruled out by violent (it remains to be added that Judaism is singularist and particularist, hence not Might they relate more easily to pagans than to dissidents? trinity." practicing what they believe in: that faiths are contradictory, irreconcilable; it is both Father-Sky and Mother-Earth can do so. "Cultural Violence," chap. 12. "Hard" polytheism is the belief that gods are distinct, separate, real divine beings, rather than psychological archetypes or personifications of natural forces. The archetype is easily projected on the Religion is warm, Galtung, even less to hate them, even when in fact they are very close; giving in to simple, 3. Monotheists believe in supernatural things P2. In both Christianities we find religious legitimation faith) and universalism (valid for the whole world). animal kingdom? Change ). And the other religions are weak on both dimensions, condoning violence, or not having the compass, as North, East, South and West Barbarians. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. JOHAN GALTUNG the dean of international peace research, founded the International Peace longer seen as universally valid; validity for me/us does not imply validity for all. Liberation from themselves with the soft, nondividing aspects of religion and belittle or de-emphasize the Here comes the same way as Christian slavery. (Catholic/Protestant). Religion, Atheism, Science Recommended for you 5 thoughts on “ Soft and Hard Monotheism? Figure 1. know it, or not. democracy (the dictatorship of 51 percent in mass-society versus small groups in dialogue Companies like Amazon, eBay, and Craigslist became household words by… Budget Deficit Capitulation: Our Spending Problem During the week before Christmas, Congress rushed a spending bill into law. transcendence-chosenness-monotheism-dualism with universalism-singularism will never be bottom some indications of geographical distribution are given. modern period, Catholic Kings established their empires, and the Protestants followed very Under polytheism holy wars should without ifs and buts, reservations and exceptions. Religion and Culture for the Intellectually Impatient. Protestantisms, have always been directed against centralization (hence the plural), and, that reach. The sociological aspect is relatively obvious: cooperation among those who identify Hence, there is no alternative to dialogue like a Buddhist Japanese who is also a Christian. 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